Juniata recognizes the ethical responsibility for humane care of animals.  Persons who use animals in teaching or research must assume responsibility for general animal welfare and conform to applicable regulations and policies. All animal accommodation facilities and programs shall be operated in accordance with applicable regulations.

The responsibilities of persons engaged in the use of live vertebrate animals include:

  • Be familiar with pertinent rules and regulations;
  • Submit a protocol for review and approval by the IACUC before proceeding with the acquisition, transportation, housing, or use of any vertebrate animals;
  • Carry out projects using minimal numbers of animals, minimizing pain and distress to animals;
  • Maintain appropriate records; and
  • Provide appropriate training to students, staff, and others involved with animal care and/or use. Such training shall include: 1) proper handling and care procedures for animal species used by the facility, 2) precautions necessary to protect the animal handlers from known risks or disease, and 3) reporting methods for deficiencies in animal care or treatment.


Juniata's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) monitors care and use of vertebrate animals and reviews program compliance. 

Committee responsibilities:

  1. Carry out annual protocol reviews and evaluation of activities involving animals;
  2. Make recommendations to Principal Investigators, Departments, or the Provost regarding any aspect of the animal program, facilities, or personnel training;
  3. Review, and, if warranted, investigate complaints received from employees or from the public; and
  4. Perform other functions as required by institutional needs and by federal, state, and local authorities.

Committee Members:

  • Dan Dries, Chemistry
  • Chris Grant, Biology
  • Marsha Hartman, Community Member
  • Leslie Leckvarcik, Science Outreach
  • Roy Nagle (Chair), Environmental Health & Safety
  • Wade Roberts, Philosophy
  • Jake Werner (Veterinarian), Penn State University
  • Chuck Yohn, Raystown Field Station

Inquiries concerning policies should be directed to the IACUC Chair: Roy Nagle

Application Protocol for Care and Treatment of Vertebrate Animals

Federal animal welfare regulations require that the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee review and approve all activities involving the use of vertebrate animals prior to their initiation.  Compliance with animal welfare regulations is mandatory and is the responsibility of all individuals involved in teaching or research. 

Protocols involving vertebrate animals must be submitted for review to Juniata’s IACUC.  To obtain a copy of the protocol application, contact the IACUC Chair: Roy Nagle, Director of Environmental Health and Safety. 

IACUC Protocol Policy

When is IACUC protocol approval required?

  • For all research or teaching activities to be conducted with live vertebrate animals owned by or housed at Juniata, or using internal or external funds administered through Juniata.
  • For research or teaching activities to be conducted with free-living vertebrate wildlife if studies involve more than unobtrusive observation of animals in their natural habitats.
  • For research and teaching activities using whole body dead animals purchased or euthanized for the research or teaching activity, or for which the recipient will influence the timing or method of euthanasia.

Activities that do not require IACUC protocol approval include:

  • Research and teaching activities using whole body dead animals that are not purchased or euthanized for the research or teaching activity, and for which the recipient will not influence the timing or method of euthanasia.  Note that federal and state regulations may apply, and any hazards must be mitigated (i.e., protective equipment may be necessary to safely collect roadkilled animals with potential zoonoses). 
  • Examples of situations that do not require an IACUC protocol include use of:
    • Unused or discarded carcasses when the recipient has no influence over the timing or method of euthanasia.  However: 1) carcasses must be obtained legally following state and federal regulations (including the investigator obtaining appropriate permits), and 2) the IACUC chair must be informed of the source(s) of animals.
    • Unused or discarded clinical samples.
    • Slaughterhouse tissues when the animal was not slaughtered specifically for the activity.
    • Archival tissues from tissue banks, museum collections or similar sources.
    • Field or wildlife studies which are unobtrusive observations of animals in their natural habitats. 

Principles for Use and Care of Live Vertebrate Animals used in Teaching and Research

The following procedures address the acquisition of animals, their transportation, use and care, efforts to minimize pain and distress, consideration of alternatives to the use of animals, and training of personnel. 

  1. The transportation, care, and use of animals should be in compliance with the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) and other applicable federal laws, guidelines, and policies.
  2. Procedures involving animals should be designed and performed with due consideration of their relevance to human or animal health, the advancement of knowledge, or the good of society.
  3. The animals selected for a procedure should be of an appropriate species and quality and the minimum number required to obtain valid results. Methods such as mathematical models, computer simulation, and in vitro biological systems should be considered.
  4. Proper use of animals, including the avoidance or minimization of discomfort, distress, and pain when consistent with sound scientific practices, is imperative.
  5. The living conditions of animals should be appropriate for their species and contribute to their health and comfort.
  6. Investigators and other personnel shall be appropriately qualified and experienced for conducting procedures on living animals.

Requirements for Animal Holding Areas

Before animals can be housed on campus, both a protocol and the housing facility must first be approved by the IACUC.

The following requirements apply to areas where animals are housed or used for teaching or research:

  1. Contact information (including home phone numbers) for Principal Investigators shall be posted. 
  2. Personnel may not eat, drink, use tobacco products, or apply cosmetics in such areas.  Food meant for human consumption may not be stored in animal holding areas. 
  3. All aisles, exits, fire extinguishers, eyewashes, and other emergency equipment shall remain unobstructed.

Facilities Inspections  

Animal housing areas are inspected annually by the campus IACUC and are subject to inspection by veterinarians from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.  Inspections are based on the structural elements listed below in addition to records relating to animal care and treatment and the currently approved protocol.


  • Structural strength
  • Water and electric power
  • Storage of food and bedding
  • Waste disposal
  • Washrooms and sinks
  • Heating and temperature
  • Ventilation
  • Lighting
  • Interior surfaces
  • Drainage
  • Shelter from sunlight, rain, snow, and cold weather

Animal Health and Husbandry:

  • Feeding
  • Watering
  • Sanitation
  • Cleaning
  • Housekeeping
  • Veterinary Care


  • Vehicles
  • Transport enclosures
  • Food and water
  • Care in transit 

Emergency Operations

Emergencies that may affect animals or animal holding facilities include natural disasters, infrastructure emergencies, and civil emergencies.  Persons responsible for animal care should consider critical mechanical systems and personnel functions that may be impacted during emergencies.  Contingency plans for animal care should be communicated to the appropriate personnel.

Key issues to consider:

  • Ability of staff to get to the facility
  • Whether or not buildings are safe for staff to enter
  • Power availability/length of outage
  • Food and water availability
  • Length of time that animals can be maintained
  • Whether or not animals may need to be relocated

Of particular concern during emergencies is communication among staff, emergency responders, and the public.  Juniata Public Safety and emergency responders must be able to reach people responsible for animal care.  That can be enhanced by prominently posting emergency procedures, names, and telephone numbers in animal facilities and by making them available to Public Safety. Any media inquiries should be directed to the Vice President of Advancement and Marketing, the official College spokesperson.

Responsibilities of Principal Investigators in relation to emergency preparedness involving animals include:

  • Designating persons responsible for animal care, including backups
  • Posting names and phone numbers of persons responsible for animals in animal holding facilities
  • Training appropriate personnel on procedures for dealing with emergencies  

Occupational Health and Safety of Animal Care Personnel

Principal investigators are responsible for ensuring a safe work place for animal care personnel. These personnel may, in the course of their employment, research or education, be exposed to vertebrate animals in a manner that places them at increased risk of an occupational illness or injury.  Personnel must be informed of any health risks associated with the species with which they will be working and the control measures necessary to minimize those risks. 

All injuries, illnesses, or accidents must be reported as soon as possible.  Incidents involving students must be reported to the professor/supervisor and the Public Safety Office.  Incidents involving employees (including student employees) must be reported to the supervisor and the Office of Human Resources.

Federal Standards

  • Animal Welfare: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. USDA. Federal Register 54(168): 36112-36163, 31 August 1989.
  • Animal Welfare: Animals and Animal Products. Federal Register. USDA. Parts 1 to 199,  Revised as of January 1, 1990.
  • Animal Welfare: Guinea pigs, hamsters, and rabbits. Federal Register 55(136): 28879-28884, 16 July 1990.
  • Animal Welfare: Standards (amendments for the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of dogs and cats, and non-human primates). Federal Register 56(32):6426-6505, 15 February 1991.
  • Animal Welfare Information Center tips for alternatives to animal research and testing.
  • Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Institute of Laboratory Animal Research, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, 1996.
  • Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act. Congressional Record, December 17, 1985.
  • Laboratory Animal Welfare. NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts Special Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 14(8). 1985.
  • Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR). NIH. Revised, 1986.

Professional Society Guidelines

  • Field Research Guidelines. A discussion of newly promulgated guidelines on acceptable humane methods of field research and their impact on institutional Animal Care and Use Committees.  Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, Bethesda, Maryland, April 1988.
  • Guidelines for the capture, handling, and care of mammals as approved by the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM), 1998.
  • Guidelines for use of fishes in field research, prepared by the American Fisheries Society (AFS), the merican Institute of Fisheries Research Biologists (AIFRB), and the Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (ASIH), 2004.
  • Guidelines for use of live amphibians and reptiles in field and laboratory research, prepared by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (ASIH), The Herpetologist's League (HL), and the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles (SSAR), 2004.
  • Guidelines to the use of wild birds in research, The Ornothological Council, 1997.
  • 1993 report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 202(2): 230-249.